What Is Out-of-Network Insurance (2024)?

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Updated: May 22, 2024

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Health insurance plays a vital role in providing patients with quality health care when they need it most. While finding in-network providers can help you lower costs and maintain regular care, sometimes out-of-network care is necessary for emergencies, specialists or other health care needs. Understanding how health insurance works, including how out-of-network insurance differs from in-network coverage and what it means for your policy, can help you make the best decisions for your health.

Defining Out-of-Network Insurance

Out-of-network insurance refers to health care services received from medical providers who are not contracted or affiliated with a particular insurance plan. When individuals seek treatment or services outside of their insurance provider's established network, they are considered out-of-network patients.

Out-Of-Network vs. In-Network

Knowing how in-network insurance works can help you better understand out-of-network coverage. In-network insurance refers to health care services rendered by medical providers who have agreed to accept negotiated rates and conditions established by an insurance plan. These providers have a contractual relationship with the insurer, which often results in lower health care costs for policyholders.

On the other hand, out-of-network coverage offers the flexibility to seek health care services from a broader range of providers, but at a potentially higher cost. While policyholders can choose any provider they prefer, they may be subject to higher deductibles, copayments and coinsurance percentages.

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The Surprise Medical Bill Act was signed into law on December 27, 2020, as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2021. It applies to most employer-sponsored health plans, as well as individual and group health insurance plans regulated by states. It aims to protect patients from unexpected and excessive medical bills, promote transparency in health care costs, and provide mechanisms for fair resolution of billing disputes.

Key Provisions of the Surprise Medical Bill Act include:

  • Balance Billing Protections: The Act safeguards patients from balance billing in emergency situations, non-emergency services at in-network facilities and out-of-network services provided without informed consent.
  • Cost-Sharing Transparency: Health plans are required to provide clear and detailed information about deductibles, copayments and coinsurance to ensure transparency in cost-sharing requirements.
  • Independent Dispute Resolution: An independent dispute resolution (IDR) process is established to help resolve billing disputes between health care providers and insurance companies.
  • In-Network Rates for Out-of-Network Services: Patients are only responsible for in-network cost sharing for specific out-of-network services, such as emergency care or when they have no choice but to receive care from an out-of-network provider in an in-network facility.

Exceptions and Emergency Care

While staying in-network is generally recommended to maximize insurance benefits, there are instances when you may need to seek out-of-network care. Some policies allow exceptions for specialized treatments or when certain health care providers are not available within the network. It is important to review the policy terms and conditions to understand the circumstances in which out-of-network coverage may be granted.

Emergency medical care is typically covered, regardless of whether the provider is in-network or out-of-network. Insurance providers understand the urgency and necessity of emergency care and aim to protect policyholders from excessive financial burdens in such situations. However, it is still advisable to check with the insurance company to understand their specific policies regarding emergency care coverage.

Plan Types With Out-of-Network Coverage


Different types of health insurance plans offer out-of-network (OON) coverage. Here are some common plan types that include OON coverage:

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Preferred Provider Organization (PPO): PPO plans grant the flexibility to see any health care provider, whether they are in-network or out-of-network. However, utilizing out-of-network providers may result in higher out-of-pocket costs.

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Point of Service (POS): POS plans usually offer partial coverage for out-of-network services. To receive coverage for out-of-network care, you may need a referral from your primary care physician.

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Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPO): EPO plans usually do not provide coverage for out-of-network services, except in emergency situations. If you choose to receive care from an out-of-network provider with an EPO plan, you may be responsible for the full cost of the services.

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Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO): In most cases, HMO plans do not include coverage for out-of-network services, except in emergencies. If you decide to receive care from an out-of-network provider with an HMO plan, you may bear the full cost of the services.

Is Out-of-Network Coverage Worth It?

Deciding whether out-of-network coverage is worth it depends on individual circumstances, priorities and the availability of in-network providers. Here are some factors to consider when evaluating the value of out-of-network coverage:

  • Provider Choice: Out-of-network coverage allows you to choose from a broader range of health care providers, including specialists who may not be available within your insurance network. If having the freedom to see specific doctors or specialists is a priority for you, out-of-network coverage can be valuable.
  • Access to Specialized Care: Some medical conditions require specialized treatment that may only be available from out-of-network providers. If you have a complex health condition and need access to specific expertise or cutting-edge treatments, out-of-network coverage may be essential.
  • Geographic Considerations: Out-of-network coverage can be particularly beneficial for individuals who frequently travel or live in areas where in-network providers are limited. It ensures access to care when in-network options are not conveniently available.
  • Financial Considerations: Out-of-network coverage often comes with higher out-of-pocket costs. Consider your financial situation and whether you can afford the potentially higher deductibles, copayments and coinsurance associated with out-of-network care.
  • Insurance Premiums: Out-of-network coverage can lead to higher insurance premiums. Assess whether the added cost of out-of-network coverage justifies the benefits and level of health care access it provides.
  • Network Adequacy: Evaluate the adequacy of the insurance network. If your insurer's network is extensive and includes quality providers in your area, the need for out-of-network coverage may be less significant.
  • Emergency Situations: Emergency medical care is generally covered by insurance, regardless of whether it is in-network or out-of-network. Evaluate the emergency coverage provided by your policy to ensure that unexpected situations are adequately addressed.

It is important to carefully review the terms of your insurance policy, compare the costs and benefits of in-network versus out-of-network coverage, and assess your specific health care needs. Consider consulting with an insurance expert or financial advisor who can help evaluate the value of out-of-network coverage based on your circumstances.

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How to Get Insurance to Cover Out-Of-Network Expenses

To get insurance to cover out-of-network expenses, follow these steps:

Review your policy.

Carefully examine your insurance policy to understand coverage details and any limitations that apply to out-of-network services.

Contact your insurance provider.

Reach out to your insurance company's customer service department to learn about the requirements and documentation needed for out-of-network coverage.

Document medical necessity.

Obtain a referral or recommendation from your in-network primary care physician to demonstrate the medical necessity of the out-of-network provider or treatment.

Request pre-approval.

Some insurance plans require pre-approval or pre-authorization before receiving out-of-network services. Submit all necessary documentation and obtain written confirmation from your insurance provider.

Negotiate with the provider.

Openly discuss costs with the out-of-network health care provider, explaining that you have insurance coverage and are seeking reimbursement. Inquire if they are willing to accept "reasonable and customary" rates.

Submit a detailed claim.

Fill out the insurance claim form with all necessary details, including itemized bills, medical codes and a clear description of the services rendered. Attach supporting documents, such as referrals and pre-authorization letters.

Follow up diligently.

Regularly follow up with your insurance provider to ensure they have received your claim and are processing it. Keep track of all communication, including dates, names of representatives and reference numbers.

Appeal if necessary.

If your claim is denied or only partially covered, review the denial explanation provided by your insurance company. Gather additional evidence and follow the appeal process outlined by your provider.

Out-of-Network Insurance FAQs

What does out of network mean?
How does out-of-network insurance work?
What is an out-of-network provider?
How do you get out-of-network coverage?
How much does out-of-network coverage cost?

About Brenna Kelly

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Brenna Kelly, the former Health Insurance Content Manager at MoneyGeek, is a licensed health insurance agent and real estate associate. She is qualified to provide expert insight and advice on medical insurance, disability, long-term care, critical illness, Medicare Supplements and Medicare Advantage Plans.

Kelly has a Bachelor of Science and a Master of Arts in Applied Sociology from the University of Central Florida. She uses her content production experience and health insurance expertise to deliver informative articles.