Mortgage Calculator

Simply Estimate Your Loan Payments, Taxes & PMI.

Updated: Sep 21, 2023

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By Christopher Boston

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30-Year Fixed

Optional: add taxes, insurance, HOA Fees

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Step-by-Step Instructions for Using Our Mortgage Calculator

Buying a home is a monumental financial decision. Use our mortgage calculator to get a detailed view of your monthly payments and understand your financial obligations over time.

How to Use:*

Home Price: Enter the home's full purchase price.

Down Payment: Type the upfront payment amount, either in dollars or as a percentage.

Loan Terms: Choose your mortgage duration (e.g., 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 years).

Interest Rate: Insert the annual rate your lender is offering.

Additional Fees: (You can input these as monthly or yearly amounts)

Property Tax: Usually a percentage of the home's value.

Homeowners Insurance: Coverage cost for property damage.

Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI): Applicable if the down payment is under 20% of the home price.

HOA Fees: Input if your property belongs to a homeowners association. Review and Understand:

The calculator presents an itemized monthly estimate: principal, interest, taxes, insurances, and fees.

View the amortization schedule to see how each payment divides between principal and interest, showcasing the decreasing loan balance.


Change the input values (e.g., increase the down payment or adjust the loan term) to observe variations in monthly costs.

Disclaimer: This tool provides general estimates. Consult a mortgage expert for personalized, accurate advice.

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While online mortgage calculators, spreadsheets, or financial calculators are the go-to tools for most people looking to find out their principal and interest payment (P&I), understanding how to calculate this by hand or with other tools can provide deeper insight into your home loan. Here’s a breakdown of how to calculate your monthly mortgage payment using various methods:

Calculating by Hand Using the Mortgage Payment Formula:

The formula to calculate the monthly mortgage payment by hand is:

M = P [ i(1 + i)^n ] / [ (1 + i)^n – 1]


M = Monthly mortgage payment
P = Principal loan amount (the amount you borrowed)
i= Monthly interest rate (your annual interest rate divided by 12)
n = Number of months required to repay the loan (loan term in years multiplied by 12)

Using Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets:

You can use the PMT formula in Excel or Google Sheets to get a P&I payment:

=PMT(i, n, P)


i = Monthly interest rate (your annual interest rate divided by 12)
n = Number of payments (loan term in years multiplied by 12 months)
P = Principal loan amount (negative number representing the amount borrowed)

How Much Mortgage Can You Afford?

Buying a house is one of the most significant financial decisions you'll make, so understanding what you can comfortably afford is paramount before you even start browsing listings. Start with a detailed review of your monthly income and expenses. A common guideline is that your mortgage payment—encompassing principal, interest, taxes, and insurance—should ideally not surpass 28% of your pre-tax monthly income. Don't overlook additional expenses like property taxes, insurance, maintenance, utilities, and HOA fees.

  • homeowner icon

    The First-Time Buyer

    For example, if you're a first-time buyer earning $5,000 pre-tax per month, aim for a mortgage payment that doesn't exceed $1,400. Plan for a down payment of at least 20% to sidestep PMI and secure lower monthly payments.

  • family icon

    The Expanding Family

    Perhaps you're a growing family planning for more children, thus requiring more space. Consider future changes in your income or family size and how these will impact your budget. A couple with a combined income of $8,000 might target a mortgage payment below $2,240, keeping in mind the costs of childcare and education.

  • seniors icon

    The Downsizer

    Or maybe you’re nearing retirement and looking to downsize. If your pre-tax income is $4,000 per month in this stage of life, a comfortable mortgage payment might be under $1,120, which aligns with maintaining a lifestyle that includes travel and hobbies in retirement.

How Does Debt-To-Income (DTI) Ratio Impact How Much You Can Afford

The DTI ratio measures the percentage of your gross monthly income used to pay your monthly debts, including credit card bills, loans, and potential mortgage costs (principal, interest, taxes, and insurance).

How It's Calculated: DTI = (Gross Monthly Income /Total Monthly Debt Payments) × 100

What Lenders Prefer: A DTI of 43% or below is generally acceptable. Many favor a DTI under 36%, with a max of 28% going towards mortgage.

Why It Matters:

Lower DTI: Indicates a good debt-to-income balance, suggesting you're a low-risk borrower. This can lead to better loan terms and rates, enabling you to afford pricier homes.

Higher DTI: Signals potential difficulty managing monthly payments. This could result in higher interest rates, reduced loan amounts, or application denial.

Takeaway: Even if approved with a high DTI, ensure it allows enough of your income for savings, emergencies, and daily expenses.

Down Payments: Do You Have Enough Cash?

The down payment is your initial contribution to the purchase of a home, typically represented as a percentage of the property's value.

Typical Amounts: Down payments commonly range from 3.5% to 20%. However, a larger down payment offers several advantages:

  1. Lower Monthly Payments: Reduce the loan amount and monthly costs.
  2. Save on Interest: Lessen the total interest over the loan's lifespan.
  3. Avoid PMI: Private Mortgage Insurance is typically required when the down payment is below 20%, adding to your costs.
  4. Better Loan Terms: Show lenders your financial preparedness, securing lower interest rates and more favorable terms.
  5. Wider Property Choices: A bigger down payment can make pricier homes more accessible.

Saving for It: Building a down payment fund can be daunting. It demands discipline, budgeting, and occasionally, making short-term sacrifices for long-term benefits. But, remember to strike a balance – while a large down payment is beneficial, it's also crucial to retain an emergency fund. Emptying all reserves for a home can leave you vulnerable to unforeseen expenses post-purchase.

How (or Should You) Pay Off Your Mortgage Faster

Owning your home outright is an enticing prospect, and paying off your mortgage early can save you significant amounts of money in interest payments. However, it’s important to weigh the benefits and potential drawbacks based on your individual financial circumstances.

Why You Might Consider Paying Off Your Mortgage Faster:

  1. Interest Savings: Accelerating your mortgage payments can save you thousands of dollars in interest over the life of your loan.

  2. Peace of Mind: For many, there’s a deep emotional and psychological satisfaction that comes with owning your home outright and knowing that it’s 100% yours.

  3. Reduced Financial Stress: Without a monthly mortgage payment, your living expenses decrease significantly, giving you more financial freedom, especially in retirement.

  4. Increased Home Equity: Paying off your mortgage faster means building equity in your home more quickly, which can be beneficial if you decide to downsize or leverage that equity in other ways.

But Should You? Points to Consider:

  • Investment Opportunities: With historically low mortgage interest rates, you might earn a higher return by investing extra cash elsewhere, such as in the stock market or a retirement account.

  • Tax Implications: In some regions, mortgage interest payments are tax-deductible, and paying off your mortgage early might reduce those benefits.

  • Emergency Savings: Before accelerating mortgage payments, it’s critical to have a robust emergency fund. You don’t want to drain your savings and leave yourself vulnerable to unexpected expenses.

  • Prepayment Penalties: Some mortgage agreements include penalties for early payment. Make sure to read your contract carefully and consult with your lender.

  • Liquidity: Money used to pay off your mortgage is tied up in your property. If you might need accessible cash for other life events or investment opportunities, consider this trade-off.

If You Decide To Pay Off Your Mortgage Faster, Here Are Some Tips:

  1. Boost Your Principal Payments: Allocate additional funds directly to your principal balance each month. This decreases your overall loan balance, reduces your interest costs, and helps you own your home free and clear more quickly.

  2. Adopt a Bi-weekly Payment Schedule: Instead of 12 monthly payments, make half-sized payments every two weeks. This simple change results in the equivalent of 13 full monthly payments each year, accelerating your mortgage payoff and saving you in interest.

  3. Consider Refinancing to a Shorter Term: Switch your mortgage from a 30-year to a 15-year term. This often comes with a lower interest rate, and though it might raise your monthly payment, it significantly speeds up your path to full ownership.

  4. Apply Unexpected Funds to Your Mortgage: Use windfalls, such as tax refunds or bonuses, to make extra payments on your mortgage. This occasional boost can make a notable difference over time.

  5. Regularly Round Up Your Payments: If your mortgage payment is $975 a month, consider rounding it up to $1000 or more. Those small extra amounts can add up over time, reducing your principal and the interest you pay on it.

About Christopher Boston

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Christopher Boston is a Senior Manager of Content Strategy and SEO at MoneyGeek. For over half a decade, they have crafted hundreds of articles spanning the higher education, mortgage and personal loan industries. Christopher is passionate about using their skills and experience to create quality content that helps people save and spend their earnings efficiently.