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The Safest Cities in America: The Cost of Crime in Our Communities

Last Updated: 12/21/2021
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Safety has taken on new significance in 2021, amid record infections and deaths from COVID-19.

Despite progress overall, crime still impacts America’s communities. Crime and safety are intertwined with prosperity, income and economic opportunity. Crime is costly to individual victims, perpetrators, communities and society at large.

MoneyGeek analyzed the most recent crime statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to estimate the cost of crime in nearly 300 cities across the United States.

Key Findings:
  • The total U.S. cost of crime was $203 billion in 2020, up from $176 billion in 2019.
  • Naperville, IL, was the safest city overall with a crime cost per capita of $187; St. Louis, MO, had the highest per-capita crime costs at $11,574.
  • Virginia Beach, VA, was the safest large city in the U.S.
  • From 2019–2020, the average city saw a 15% increase in the cost of crime; the median increase in crime costs was 11%.
  • Aguanga, CA, had the highest societal costs due to mass shootings ($75,875,198).

The Safest Cities in America

MoneyGeek Safest Cities in America Badge

We ranked 297 cities with populations over 100,000 people from most to least safe in this analysis. The following summaries show the safest cities overall, the safest large cities, and the most dangerous cities from the analysis and their total and per capita cost of crime. The full data set including the city's population, cost of crime and crime rates by type of crime are included at the end of this study.

There's an ongoing stereotype that larger cities are more dangerous. While no larger cities (population of 300,000 or more) made the overall safest list, fewer than half of the 15 least-safe cities in the U.S. were large cities.

20 Safest Cities in America

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  • City
    Crime Cost per Capita
  • 1.
    Naperville, IL
    $187
  • 2.
    Cary, NC
    $195
  • 3.
    Murrieta, CA
    $200
  • 4.
    Carmel, IN
    $214
  • 5.
    Frisco, TX
    $218

15 Safest Large Cities

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  • City
    Crime Cost per Capita
  • 1.
    Virginia Beach, VA
    $611
  • 2.
    Honolulu, HI
    $695
  • 3.
    Henderson, NV
    $767
  • 4.
    El Paso, TX
    $811
  • 5.
    Mesa, AZ
    $901

15 Most Dangerous Cities

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  • City
    Crime Cost per Capita
  • 1.
    St. Louis, MO
    $11,574
  • 2.
    Jackson, MS
    $9,138
  • 3.
    Detroit, MI
    $7,292
  • 4.
    New Orleans, LA
    $7,214
  • 5.
    Baltimore, MD
    $7,091

Mass Shootings

Mass shootings are a particular scourge on American life. According to Gun Violence Archive, which defines mass shootings as any single incident in which four or more people are shot, there were 611 mass shootings in 2020 and 676 as of December 2021.

Mass shooting events are included in the safest and most dangerous cities rankings. Though they are relatively rare, we did not adjust our rankings for these events. The emotional impact of mass shootings is incalculable, traumatizing families and entire communities. To quantify the economic impact, MoneyGeek calculated the total cost of mass shootings in 2019 to be $6 billion, which is about 3% of the total cost of crime in the approximately 300 cities analyzed.

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  • Location
    Societal Cost
  • 1.
    Aguanga, California
    $75,875,198
  • 2.
    Valhermoso, Alabama
    $75,875,198
  • 3.
    Moncure, North Carolina
    $75,875,198
  • 4.
    Monroe, Louisiana
    $65,035,884
  • 5.
    Milwaukee, Wisconsin
    $65,035,884

How the Cost of Crime Changed from 2019 to 2020

The year 2020 was marked by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, worldwide lockdowns and mass protests resulting in high profile, violent crimes. Amidst these events, the cost of crime increased by an average of 15% from 2019–2020.

To assess the way crime costs changed from 2019–2020 in the 297 cities included in our analysis, MoneyGeek calculated percentage decreases or increases in crime costs for each city and counted the number of cities that fit into various ranges of change.

MoneyGeek found that the median change in crime across these cities was 11%. Chicago and Philadelphia had some of the most significant increases in crime among large cities in the U.S., with 29% and 28% increases, respectively.

Safety and the Cost of Crime

The direct economic costs of crime to individuals and society include medical and mental health care needs of victims, damage to and loss of property and police and corrections costs. Aside from the imminent danger of crime, people living in higher crime areas see depressed home values and pay higher prices for crucial needs, including home, renters and auto insurance.

To assess the safest cities, MoneyGeek analyzed crime data, including violent crimes such as murder, rape and aggravated assault and property crimes such as home burglary and motor vehicle theft. MoneyGeek calculated each city's cost of crime and ranked the cities based on the cost of crime per capita. Additionally, researchers have quantified how much more violent crimes cost a community than property crimes.

While perceptions of safety are vital, crime statistics do not capture any city or community's whole story.

"Behind all these averages that people like to cite about the crime rates in different communities are individual people and their decisions about how they choose to engage in their community," says Jesse Bruhn, Annenberg assistant professor of education and economics at Brown University who researches education issues and inner-city gang violence. "There's a lot more heterogeneity in these patterns that we just can't measure."

Despite genuine threats, Bruhn says, it may be surprising how safe people can feel in neighborhoods with high crime rates.

Expert Panel: The Impact of Crime on Communities

Though the relationship between crime rates and poverty levels is well established, experts caution against oversimplifying the relationship between socioeconomic indicators and real or perceived safety in communities.

"We live in an unequal society," said Geoffrey T. Dancy, associate professor of political science at Tulane University. "One often overlooked indicator of that inequality is who gets to engage in the politics of safety. Those who are objectively safe often fear crime and act on it in the counterproductive policies they support. Those who are actually victimized by crime and terrorized by gun violence pay the price and are rarely heard."

  1. How do you define safety in a city or community? Are there factors beyond crime rates?
  2. How does the correlation between crime rates and income factor in our assessment of the safety of communities? Should it?
  3. What role do social unrest, protests over structural racism, the Black Lives Matter movement or calls to defund police play into safety perceptions? How about in the actual safety of a city or community?
  4. How does crime impact a community's economic well-being? How about individual wealth?
  5. What programs, strategies or interventions have been shown to reduce crime or improve real or perceived safety in communities?
Jesse Bruhn
Jesse Bruhn

Assistant Professor of Economics at Brown University

Angela P. Christiana
Angela P. Christiana

Massachusetts Chapter Leader, Moms Demand Action for Gun Sense in America

Geoffrey T. Dancy
Geoffrey T. Dancy

Associate Professor of Political Science

Megan Ranney
Megan Ranney

Emergency Physician and Researcher

Leonard A. Sipes, Jr.
Leonard A. Sipes, Jr.

Owner of CrimeInAmerica.net

Methodology

To rank the safest cities in the United States, MoneyGeek started with standardized crime statistics reported to the FBI. The population of each city was added to the analysis to determine crime rates per 100,000 people, and this information was also accessed via data provided by the FBI. When cities with more than 200,000 people did not have data available in the FBI dataset, MoneyGeek conducted individualized research on standardized crime statistics for each specific city.

MoneyGeek relied on research by professors Kathryn McCollister and Michael French of the University of Miami and Hai Fang of the University of Colorado Denver to determine the cost of crime to society. We then integrated their findings into the broader dataset to better understand the societal cost of crime within individual cities.

To calculate the change in the cost of crime from 2019 to 2020, MoneyGeek analyzed 2019 FBI crime statistics according to the methodology above and compared them with our 2020 analysis results.

Lastly, MoneyGeek used data provided via Wikipedia on the number and nature of mass shootings in the United States in 2020.

Full Data Set

City
Safest Cities Rank
Crime Cost per Capita
Violent Crime Rate
Property Crime Rate
Cost of Crime ($000s)
Population

Naperville, IL

1

$187

66

164

$27,824

149,137

Cary, NC

2

$195

66

946

$33,968

174,441

Murrieta, CA

3

$200

81

1,024

$23,540

117,639

Carmel, IN

4

$214

49

587

$22,068

103,100

Frisco, TX

5

$218

86

972

$46,412

212,626

Amherst Town, NY

6

$227

126

1,537

$27,589

121,304

Cape Coral, FL

7

$233

128

1,068

$46,386

199,503

Irvine, CA

8

$236

51

1,499

$70,042

297,069

Thousand Oaks, CA

9

$252

60

1,037

$31,970

126,823

McKinney, TX

10

$276

134

936

$57,442

208,335

Allen, TX

11

$276

97

920

$29,844

108,218

Lee's Summit, MO

12

$295

129

2,045

$29,574

100,268

Coral Springs, FL

13

$301

121

1,232

$40,693

135,027

Bend, OR

14

$310

168

1,893

$32,062

103,485

Woodbridge Township, NJ

15

$311

126

1,235

$31,103

100,119

Temecula, CA

16

$311

127

1,943

$36,223

116,442

Santa Clarita, CA

17

$319

131

907

$70,742

221,932

Daly City, CA

18

$326

180

1,366

$34,861

106,855

Meridian, ID

19

$348

159

844

$41,435

119,203

Centennial, CO

20

$351

128

1,765

$39,401

112,104

League City, TX

21

$354

115

1,351

$39,068

110,518

Gilbert, AZ

22

$361

109

1,078

$93,641

259,629

Lakewood Township, NJ

23

$364

121

806

$39,287

108,023

Sterling Heights, MI

24

$387

176

859

$51,311

132,745

Elk Grove, CA

25

$387

224

1,342

$68,677

177,331

Surprise, AZ

26

$389

145

1,387

$56,274

144,620

Glendale, CA

27

$395

103

1,597

$79,065

200,168

Elgin, IL

28

$409

234

222

$45,463

111,127

Ann Arbor, MI

29

$425

244

1,320

$51,236

120,647

Plano, TX

30

$433

155

1,645

$125,824

290,786

Corona, CA

31

$436

140

2,101

$74,871

171,848

Pembroke Pines, FL

32

$438

119

1,420

$77,035

175,757

Port St. Lucie, FL

33

$440

128

807

$90,871

206,450

Burbank, CA

34

$446

170

2,416

$45,679

102,419

Cambridge, MA

35

$448

284

1,834

$53,783

119,938

Fort Collins, CO

36

$450

213

2,131

$76,457

169,810

Fremont, CA

37

$456

167

2,343

$111,265

244,259

McAllen, TX

38

$457

85

1,931

$66,008

144,569

Arlington, VA

39

$459

185

1,402

$104,726

228,400

Alexandria, VA

40

$461

183

1,729

$74,394

161,525

Clovis, CA

41

$461

205

1,998

$53,866

116,809

Olathe, KS

42

$464

250

1,364

$66,042

142,228

Sunnyvale, CA

43

$477

149

2,062

$73,551

154,133

Simi Valley, CA

44

$479

133

1,048

$60,170

125,742

Pearland, TX

45

$485

99

1,427

$61,126

126,111

Sugar Land, TX

46

$490

57

1,067

$58,676

119,671

Round Rock, TX

47

$491

134

1,659

$67,612

137,593

Santa Clara, CA

48

$495

156

2,501

$65,359

131,976

West Covina, CA

49

$501

196

2,107

$52,592

104,989

Beaverton, OR

50

$525

235

2,195

$52,501

100,085

Broken Arrow, OK

51

$532

172

1,936

$59,316

111,488

Rancho Cucamonga, CA

52

$535

308

1,825

$95,722

178,916

Overland Park, KS

53

$537

208

1,972

$106,341

198,036

College Station, TX

54

$549

180

1,903

$66,374

120,831

Peoria, AZ

55

$565

264

1,503

$100,847

178,486

Huntington Beach, CA

56

$567

246

1,963

$113,424

200,128

Carlsbad, CA

57

$574

192

1,580

$66,927

116,516

Clearwater, FL

58

$579

390

1,894

$68,264

117,859

Vacaville, CA

59

$582

243

1,732

$59,174

101,616

Davie, FL

60

$590

244

2,264

$63,748

107,988

Boca Raton, FL

61

$594

203

1,965

$60,290

101,583

Hialeah, FL

62

$598

191

1,644

$139,960

234,235

Hillsboro, OR

63

$605

231

1,932

$67,203

111,146

Orange, CA

64

$609

130

1,726

$84,514

138,846

Virginia Beach, VA

65

$611

99

1,512

$275,251

450,858

Miramar, FL

66

$612

243

1,046

$87,824

143,470

Vista, CA

67

$620

336

1,173

$63,647

102,600

Garden Grove, CA

68

$621

298

2,294

$106,609

171,698

Roseville, CA

69

$622

192

1,973

$89,704

144,128

Torrance, CA

70

$627

191

2,046

$89,955

143,421

Clinton Township, MI

71

$635

392

1,223

$64,027

100,884

Bellevue, WA

72

$640

116

3,006

$96,411

150,548

Downey, CA

73

$641

271

1,939

$71,219

111,054

Scottsdale, AZ

74

$652

179

1,880

$171,359

263,006

Boise, ID

75

$655

293

1,640

$151,482

231,223

Fullerton, CA

76

$685

304

2,401

$95,189

139,011

Palm Bay, FL

77

$686

281

1,514

$80,240

116,897

Jurupa Valley, CA

78

$690

257

2,111

$76,711

111,198

Honolulu, HI

79

$695

240

2,499

$706,251

1,016,508

Ventura, CA

80

$717

300

2,824

$78,368

109,295

Salem, OR

81

$725

395

3,792

$128,084

176,632

Yonkers, NY

82

$735

325

991

$147,652

200,816

Nampa, ID

83

$746

315

1,643

$75,690

101,411

Nampa, ID

83

$746

315

1,643

$75,690

101,411

Chandler, AZ

85

$749

206

1,855

$197,793

264,071

Concord, CA

86

$752

325

2,908

$97,799

130,074

Oceanside, CA

87

$761

406

1,801

$134,319

176,616

Henderson, NV

88

$767

208

1,426

$251,611

328,056

Stamford, CT

89

$769

218

1,104

$100,274

130,425

Fontana, CA

90

$773

308

1,156

$167,387

216,553

West Jordan, UT

91

$795

247

2,526

$93,748

117,955

Lewisville, TX

92

$804

292

1,759

$89,093

110,800

Chula Vista, CA

93

$805

329

1,171

$223,929

278,027

Garland, TX

94

$807

287

2,524

$195,140

241,845

Boulder, CO

95

$810

322

3,770

$86,370

106,598

El Paso, TX

96

$811

316

1,241

$555,615

685,288

Sandy Springs, GA

97

$817

147

1,384

$90,904

111,219

Richardson, TX

98

$828

127

1,952

$102,793

124,190

Escondido, CA

99

$841

373

1,769

$128,168

152,446

Santa Rosa, CA

100

$870

516

1,604

$153,914

176,932

Eugene, OR

101

$880

390

4,000

$153,485

174,513

Costa Mesa, CA

102

$885

431

3,160

$100,238

113,317

Laredo, TX

103

$898

324

1,445

$238,557

265,515

Mesa, AZ

104

$901

372

1,846

$475,227

527,361

Denton, TX

105

$903

266

2,183

$130,490

144,569

Rochester, MN

106

$903

249

1,923

$108,661

120,336

Norman, OK

107

$904

289

2,578

$114,276

126,480

San Diego, CA

108

$906

369

1,692

$1,302,678

1,437,608

San Mateo, CA

109

$912

260

2,191

$95,955

105,246

Chico, CA

110

$917

513

2,006

$96,573

105,355

Abilene, TX

111

$917

414

2,135

$113,814

124,061

Brownsville, TX

112

$921

402

1,848

$169,086

183,627

Aurora, IL

113

$924

333

200

$182,643

197,709

Norwalk, CA

114

$932

421

1,707

$96,715

103,774

Madison, WI

115

$936

320

2,779

$245,964

262,736

Lowell, MA

116

$953

314

1,469

$105,709

110,876

Spokane Valley, WA

117

$965

334

4,269

$98,789

102,366

Irving, TX

118

$966

321

2,561

$234,640

242,976

Oxnard, CA

119

$970

354

2,058

$203,780

210,064

Everett, WA

120

$993

337

3,250

$111,649

112,439

Raleigh, NC

121

$996

392

2,021

$480,190

482,264

Arvada, CO

122

$997

228

3,164

$122,675

122,983

Grand Prairie, TX

123

$1,020

245

1,924

$200,880

196,990

Pasadena, CA

124

$1,045

293

2,135

$147,898

141,473

Sparks, NV

125

$1,054

418

1,957

$112,426

106,664

Anaheim, CA

126

$1,077

353

2,519

$379,024

351,913

Thornton, CO

127

$1,079

288

3,148

$155,579

144,156

Chesapeake, VA

128

$1,099

413

1,786

$271,702

247,118

San Jose, CA

129

$1,100

425

2,316

$1,132,087

1,029,542

Athens-Clarke County, GA

130

$1,104

510

2,954

$141,508

128,152

El Cajon, CA

131

$1,105

497

1,792

$113,882

103,035

Vancouver, WA

132

$1,108

474

3,598

$206,544

186,440

Santa Ana, CA

133

$1,109

429

2,079

$369,377

333,107

Allentown, PA

134

$1,114

336

1,962

$140,190

125,845

Lincoln, NE

135

$1,144

445

2,823

$333,051

291,082

Santa Maria, CA

136

$1,147

771

2,286

$124,019

108,140

Edinburg, TX

137

$1,154

314

2,232

$119,405

103,491

Ontario, CA

138

$1,162

366

2,131

$217,856

187,464

Manchester, NH

139

$1,175

593

2,265

$132,760

113,018

Jersey City, NJ

140

$1,196

443

1,497

$314,860

263,273

Green Bay, WI

141

$1,200

527

1,529

$125,620

104,649

New York, NY

142

$1,204

578

1,558

$9,993,306

8,300,377

Austin, TX

143

$1,205

467

3,631

$1,205,150

1,000,276

Worcester, MA

144

$1,230

632

1,999

$227,336

184,850

Midland, TX

145

$1,230

365

2,072

$185,143

150,529

Kenosha, WI

146

$1,235

391

1,443

$123,475

100,005

Tyler, TX

147

$1,238

436

3,048

$133,878

108,139

Gresham, OR

148

$1,240

465

2,804

$136,072

109,767

Palmdale, CA

149

$1,242

479

1,374

$192,919

155,321

Fairfield, CA

150

$1,243

457

2,523

$147,240

118,491

Pasadena, TX

151

$1,262

572

2,333

$191,056

151,421

Joliet, IL

152

$1,269

363

955

$190,853

150,362

Tempe, AZ

153

$1,279

550

3,563

$255,781

199,935

West Valley, UT

154

$1,289

528

3,330

$175,180

135,887

Arlington, TX

155

$1,303

532

2,551

$524,602

402,700

Salinas, CA

156

$1,313

555

2,232

$204,790

155,984

Renton, WA

157

$1,319

338

4,221

$135,677

102,856

El Monte, CA

158

$1,320

301

1,534

$152,715

115,690

St. Petersburg, FL

159

$1,321

662

2,556

$353,652

267,690

Las Vegas, NV

160

$1,329

528

2,211

$2,249,583

1,693,061

Visalia, CA

161

$1,332

409

2,267

$180,813

135,733

Riverside, CA

162

$1,354

446

2,985

$452,805

334,370

San Angelo, TX

163

$1,358

350

2,984

$138,348

101,860

Moreno Valley, CA

164

$1,391

387

2,381

$299,325

215,257

Rialto, CA

165

$1,396

481

2,428

$145,236

104,004

North Las Vegas, NV

166

$1,399

522

1,624

$358,559

256,217

Murfreesboro, TN

167

$1,400

488

2,485

$212,476

151,769

Berkeley, CA

168

$1,408

439

4,524

$172,317

122,346

Fargo, ND

169

$1,419

460

3,469

$180,090

126,927

Cedar Rapids, IA

170

$1,438

322

3,167

$193,159

134,330

Westminster, CO

171

$1,468

286

3,540

$167,286

113,941

Kent, WA

172

$1,472

351

4,028

$197,076

133,883

Greeley, CO

173

$1,473

425

2,463

$162,722

110,505

Sioux Falls, SD

174

$1,474

598

3,131

$276,201

187,370

Boston, MA

175

$1,529

624

1,866

$1,066,483

697,323

Lakewood, CO

176

$1,535

565

5,040

$245,152

159,719

Lexington, KY

177

$1,546

320

2,872

$503,788

325,851

Antioch, CA

178

$1,550

525

2,417

$174,366

112,481

Reno, NV

179

$1,556

563

2,147

$403,208

259,168

San Francisco, CA

180

$1,556

544

4,394

$1,371,787

881,514

Atlanta, GA

181

$1,568

269

1,188

$781,744

498,715

Hayward, CA

182

$1,573

328

3,325

$253,006

160,891

Mesquite, TX

183

$1,576

438

3,536

$222,773

141,325

Warren, MI

184

$1,586

502

1,447

$212,461

133,928

Tampa, FL

185

$1,593

520

1,365

$648,997

407,350

Modesto, CA

186

$1,612

740

2,466

$349,124

216,560

Hollywood, FL

187

$1,623

346

2,120

$253,849

156,434

Glendale, AZ

188

$1,627

440

2,723

$415,637

255,468

Long Beach, CA

189

$1,632

506

2,747

$754,844

462,654

Providence, RI

190

$1,637

486

2,415

$294,066

179,603

Wichita Falls, TX

191

$1,653

387

3,078

$173,016

104,673

Clarksville, TN

192

$1,654

610

2,243

$266,547

161,167

Omaha, NE

193

$1,661

631

3,174

$797,942

480,297

Colorado Springs, CO

194

$1,664

597

3,380

$807,370

485,083

Lakeland, FL

195

$1,676

355

2,470

$190,899

113,876

Sacramento, CA

196

$1,687

683

2,745

$875,514

519,050

Portland, OR

197

$1,725

523

4,739

$1,143,680

662,941

Pomona, CA

198

$1,761

513

3,131

$267,715

151,982

Columbia, MO

199

$1,770

442

2,664

$220,892

124,829

Gainesville, FL

200

$1,772

771

3,181

$239,327

135,076

Los Angeles, CA

201

$1,801

722

2,148

$7,204,987

4,000,587

Seattle, WA

202

$1,839

626

4,873

$1,418,828

771,517

Amarillo, TX

203

$1,849

837

3,679

$370,378

200,296

San Antonio, TX

204

$1,855

735

3,627

$2,918,327

1,573,189

Charleston, SC

205

$1,876

466

2,305

$261,910

139,582

Waterbury, CT

206

$1,918

373

2,650

$205,730

107,263

Waco, TX

207

$1,918

642

3,446

$270,253

140,870

Lancaster, CA

208

$1,936

760

1,706

$305,284

157,689

Spokane, WA

209

$1,950

600

5,151

$435,792

223,524

Evansville, IN

210

$1,962

1,006

3,611

$231,022

117,747

Fort Worth, TX

211

$1,968

541

2,733

$1,829,186

929,509

Lafayette, LA

212

$2,002

562

4,519

$253,573

126,679

Miami, FL

213

$2,025

556

2,750

$964,038

476,102

Odessa, TX

214

$2,029

808

2,505

$256,182

126,288

High Point, NC

215

$2,068

680

3,005

$235,184

113,727

Fort Wayne, IN

216

$2,075

413

2,247

$564,900

272,270

Davenport, IA

217

$2,095

737

3,925

$213,302

101,806

Oklahoma City, OK

218

$2,095

726

3,896

$1,390,540

663,661

Bakersfield, CA

219

$2,102

517

4,023

$816,163

388,265

Independence, MO

220

$2,106

678

4,576

$245,689

116,648

Springfield, IL

221

$2,109

946

1,046

$240,283

113,912

Newport News, VA

222

$2,115

626

2,039

$378,305

178,896

Pittsburgh, PA

223

$2,117

453

2,029

$641,292

302,971

Corpus Christi, TX

224

$2,121

842

3,266

$698,000

329,050

Orlando, FL

225

$2,135

860

3,803

$626,341

293,363

Phoenix, AZ

226

$2,145

798

2,989

$3,665,473

1,708,960

Tucson, AZ

227

$2,157

698

3,621

$1,187,341

550,448

Elizabeth, NJ

228

$2,159

598

2,237

$279,600

129,518

St. Paul, MN

229

$2,177

749

3,803

$674,541

309,859

Anchorage, AK

230

$2,205

1,212

3,447

$631,376

286,388

Grand Rapids, MI

231

$2,229

713

1,953

$451,464

202,513

Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC

232

$2,232

836

3,240

$2,139,172

958,358

Inglewood, CA

233

$2,242

629

2,310

$242,158

107,986

Springfield, MA

234

$2,268

967

2,437

$347,174

153,084

Louisville, KY

235

$2,270

652

2,566

$2,472,028

1,089,000

Aurora, CO

236

$2,284

900

3,391

$881,024

385,720

Tallahassee, FL

237

$2,316

773

2,952

$454,013

196,012

Birmingham, AL

238

$2,327

431

1,487

$467,081

200,733

Hampton, VA

239

$2,353

266

2,490

$315,450

134,082

Peoria, IL

240

$2,375

986

984

$261,117

109,924

Fresno, CA

241

$2,381

665

3,077

$1,275,044

535,472

Charlotte, NC

242

$2,383

915

3,562

$2,083,754

874,579

Durham, NC

243

$2,409

859

3,738

$686,353

284,925

Jacksonville, FL

244

$2,434

698

2,871

$2,240,430

920,508

Lubbock, TX

245

$2,441

1,088

4,108

$639,912

262,146

Killeen, TX

246

$2,461

669

1,481

$380,039

154,417

Salt Lake City, UT

247

$2,464

922

7,352

$498,240

202,187

Miami Gardens, FL

248

$2,468

709

2,516

$272,167

110,284

Billings, MT

249

$2,486

852

4,765

$273,802

110,157

Winston-Salem, NC

250

$2,507

1,245

4,761

$625,511

249,545

Fayetteville, NC

251

$2,517

978

3,400

$533,753

212,033

Victorville, CA

252

$2,541

881

1,591

$312,713

123,085

Bridgeport, CT

253

$2,561

574

1,742

$369,690

144,350

Columbia, SC

254

$2,568

752

4,476

$338,363

131,777

Tacoma, WA

255

$2,607

843

5,507

$573,953

220,123

New Haven, CT

256

$2,644

708

3,511

$344,550

130,299

Wilmington, NC

257

$2,645

629

2,547

$332,706

125,794

Des Moines, IA

258

$2,649

705

3,902

$570,206

215,290

Denver, CO

259

$2,651

858

4,649

$1,955,502

737,709

West Palm Beach, FL

260

$2,687

762

3,410

$304,399

113,268

Pompano Beach, FL

261

$2,715

737

2,767

$308,317

113,545

Topeka, KS

262

$2,769

725

4,764

$346,151

125,024

Newark, NJ

263

$2,772

529

1,618

$782,472

282,242

Wichita, KS

264

$2,843

926

5,192

$1,130,143

397,532

Norfolk, VA

265

$2,879

636

2,718

$698,287

242,516

Lansing, MI

266

$2,907

1,432

3,005

$344,975

118,651

Dallas, TX

267

$2,956

845

3,446

$4,028,511

1,363,028

Paterson, NJ

268

$2,988

989

1,490

$433,089

144,947

Columbus, OH

269

$3,004

556

3,130

$2,737,761

911,383

Richmond, CA

270

$3,005

964

3,303

$334,698

111,367

Nashville, TN

271

$3,021

1,156

4,073

$2,078,617

688,013

Hartford, CT

272

$3,039

992

3,110

$370,017

121,749

Pueblo, CO

273

$3,058

1,045

4,631

$345,519

113,002

Fort Lauderdale, FL

274

$3,084

628

4,156

$568,494

184,347

Albuquerque, NM

275

$3,092

1,344

5,012

$1,737,634

562,065

South Fulton, GA

276

$3,122

1,027

2,676

$314,228

100,658

Greensboro, NC

277

$3,153

902

3,611

$945,472

299,887

Beaumont, TX

278

$3,178

1,226

3,308

$371,042

116,766

Springfield, MO

279

$3,190

1,507

6,951

$538,660

168,856

Knoxville, TN

280

$3,197

810

4,228

$603,176

188,672

Stockton, CA

281

$3,211

1,277

2,981

$1,011,368

314,981

Toledo, OH

282

$3,246

1,006

2,894

$880,543

271,237

Houston, TX

283

$3,264

1,256

4,179

$7,657,858

2,346,155

Tulsa, OK

284

$3,414

1,133

5,112

$1,372,847

402,166

Syracuse, NY

285

$3,449

839

2,823

$489,863

142,011

Chattanooga, TN

286

$3,482

1,359

6,356

$641,492

184,211

Rockford, IL

287

$3,526

1,451

2,834

$510,588

144,795

Rochester, NY

288

$3,527

819

3,356

$723,637

205,199

Minneapolis, MN

289

$3,531

1,155

4,558

$1,536,589

435,116

Richmond, VA

290

$3,559

349

2,921

$830,502

233,350

Buffalo, NY

291

$3,630

1,018

3,081

$924,329

254,627

Akron, OH

292

$3,725

910

3,531

$735,459

197,433

Indianapolis, IN

293

$3,734

871

3,570

$3,325,345

890,672

Vallejo, CA

294

$3,883

991

3,334

$474,947

122,326

Chicago, IL

295

$4,070

987

694

$10,962,454

2,693,598

Washington, DC

296

$4,077

958

3,431

$2,905,903

712,816

Oakland, CA

297

$4,289

1,291

5,166

$1,878,113

437,923

Little Rock, AR

298

$4,420

1,850

4,857

$873,775

197,688

Philadelphia, PA

299

$4,435

966

2,974

$7,112,797

1,603,797

Cincinnati, OH

300

$4,436

893

3,683

$1,351,713

304,724

South Bend, IN

301

$4,547

1,728

3,663

$464,349

102,119

San Bernardino, CA

302

$4,824

1,402

2,800

$1,043,757

216,365

North Charleston, SC

303

$4,854

1,145

5,105

$570,311

117,503

Dayton, OH

304

$4,907

1,086

3,845

$687,950

140,193

Milwaukee, WI

305

$5,049

1,597

2,729

$2,974,321

589,105

Shreveport, LA

306

$5,153

923

4,799

$956,358

185,588

Kansas City, MO

307

$5,382

1,586

4,119

$2,687,313

499,335

Baton Rouge, LA

308

$6,150

952

4,826

$1,348,374

219,245

Cleveland, OH

309

$6,423

1,657

4,071

$2,435,041

379,121

Memphis, TN

310

$6,884

2,352

5,561

$4,480,971

650,937

Baltimore, MD

311

$7,091

1,461

2,888

$4,153,460

585,708

New Orleans, LA

312

$7,214

1,324

4,540

$2,840,807

393,779

Detroit, MI

313

$7,292

2,179

3,211

$4,809,835

659,616

Jackson, MS

314

$9,138

1,050

4,280

$1,404,476

153,701

St. Louis, MO

315

$11,574

2,016

5,830

$3,453,923

298,422

About the Author


expert-profile

Deb Gordon is author of The Health Care Consumer’s Manifesto (Praeger 2020), a book about shopping for health care, based on consumer research she conducted as a senior fellow in the Harvard Kennedy School’s Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government between 2017 and 2019. Her research and writing have been published in JAMA Network Open, the Harvard Business Review blog, USA Today, RealClear Politics, TheHill, and Managed Care Magazine. Deb previously held health care executive roles in health insurance and health care technology services. Deb is an Aspen Institute Health Innovators Fellow, and an Eisenhower Fellow, for which she traveled to Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore to explore the role of consumers in high-performing health systems. She was a 2011 Boston Business Journal 40-under-40 honoree, and a volunteer in MIT’s Delta V start-up accelerator, the Fierce Healthcare Innovation Awards, and in various mentorship programs. She earned a BA in bioethics from Brown University, and an MBA with distinction from Harvard Business School.


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