A Guide to Avoiding Home Equity Loan Scams

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Updated: March 5, 2024

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Home equity loans are a handy way to access cash for big expenses like home renovations or college fees. However, diving into these waters unprepared can be risky because, alongside legitimate offers, there's the possibility some are scams or frauds. Knowing how to spot and sidestep these pitfalls is crucial — and our guide helps you with it. We'll help you recognize and avoid common financial traps, ensuring your journey toward a home equity loan is safe and secure. Being well-informed is your best defense.

Key Takeaways

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Knowledge is your best defense: Familiarize yourself with common scams and warning signs to protect against home equity loan fraud.

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Be aware of common home equity scams like bait and switch, equity stripping, loan flipping and foreclosure relief.

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If you encounter a scam, report it immediately to authorities, seek legal or financial advice and share your experience to warn others.

Understanding Home Equity Loans

A home equity loan essentially lets you borrow against the value of your home. It's often called a second mortgage because it's a loan you take out in addition to your primary mortgage. The amount you can borrow depends on your home's equity, so knowing how much you have is crucial.

Home equity loans offer some attractive benefits. They typically come with lower interest rates compared to other types of loans. Also, the interest you pay might be tax-deductible. Borrowers can use the money to fund home renovations, higher education, emergency funds and to consolidate other debts.

A home equity loan can be a smart financial tool if used wisely. The repayment process is similar to your original mortgage — you pay it back over time, but it's for different, often very personal reasons. However, consider your financial stability before taking one out to ensure you can comfortably make repayments.

Recognizing Home Equity Loan Scams

The process is usually straightforward when you're looking to secure a home equity loan. However, it's best to stay alert because not every lending situation is as clear-cut. Unfortunately, scams do exist, and falling victim to one can be stressful and costly.

Identifying red flags early on can save you from financial loss and unnecessary stress. Knowing what to look out for means you can proceed with confidence and caution. Let's delve into some of these warning signs:

  • Unsolicited Loan Offers: Be cautious of lenders who initiate contact with you, particularly if you have yet to indicate interest in a loan. Unsolicited offers may be a front for scams, as legitimate lenders often wait for you to initiate contact. However, it's worth noting that your current lender may sometimes send unsolicited information, as they have access to details such as your interest rate and loan balance.

  • Unclear Fees and Terms: Legitimate lenders will always be transparent about the fees and terms of your loan. If a lender is vague or unwilling to provide detailed information upfront, it could be a sign of deceptive practices.

  • Pressure to Sign Quickly: If a lender is rushing you to sign loan documents without giving you time to review them, be cautious. Scammers often pressure victims to make quick decisions, preventing them from noticing unfair terms or hidden fees.

  • Too-Good-to-Be-True Offers: A deal that seems too advantageous, like those with exceptionally low interest rates, might be a scam. Legitimate home equity loans typically have standard market rates and conditions.

  • No Repayment Ability Check: A responsible lender continuously checks your ability to repay the loan. If a lender doesn't seem concerned about your repayment capacity, it might be an attempt to trap you in debt or seize your property.

These warning signs can help you navigate the process of securing a home equity loan safely. Recognizing and avoiding home equity loan scams is key to ensuring your financial journey is secure and successful. Stay informed, ask questions and trust your instincts to protect yourself from potential scams.

8 Common Types of Home Equity Scams

You might encounter various scams, and understanding the common ones is your first line of defense. By recognizing their tactics, you can steer clear of potential traps, giving you the power to make safer financial decisions. Let’s explore the most common home equity scams, giving you the information necessary to spot and sidestep these financial pitfalls.

The Bait and Switch

Meet Emma, a homeowner looking to renovate her kitchen. She finds a lender advertising low-interest home equity loans and decides to apply. The lender approves her quickly, offering an attractive interest rate with manageable monthly payments. Excited, Emma prepares for her kitchen makeover. But on the day of signing, the lender presents a different contract with a higher interest rate and steeper fees. Feeling pressured, Emma, who had already committed to her renovation plans, signs the contract, only to face financial strain from the unexpected terms.

This scenario is a classic example of a "bait and switch" scam in home equity loans. Here's how it works: a lender lures you in with appealing loan terms. Then, at the last minute, they switch to a contract with less favorable conditions. This often happens at a point where you might feel too invested or pressured to back out.


Be vigilant for changes in loan terms at the last minute. Always read the final contract thoroughly, and don't hesitate to question discrepancies between the initial offer and the final terms. Remember, a trustworthy lender will maintain transparency and consistency from start to finish.

Equity Stripping

John, facing foreclosure, is approached by someone offering to save his home through a home equity loan, promising financial relief. Urged to sign documents under the guise of aid, John unknowingly transfers ownership to the scammer, who refinances the home and steals the equity. This act, known as equity stripping, preys on vulnerable homeowners by exploiting their desperation and trust.

Scammers target those in financial distress, using promises of rescue to mask their true intent: seizing property and equity. Victims are left facing foreclosure once more, this time devoid of their home's accumulated equity. Equity stripping is a calculated deception, highlighting the critical need for homeowners to scrutinize financial agreements and seek reputable advice before risking their most valuable asset.


Be on high alert for equity stripping scams, which often begin with unsolicited financial assistance or foreclosure rescue offers. Scammers typically pressure you into signing documents quickly without giving you adequate time to understand the terms or seek legal advice. A common tactic involves proposing the transfer of your home's title as a supposed protective measure. Always seek advice from a financial advisor before committing to such loans, especially in financially challenging times.

Loan Flipping

Let's talk about Sarah, who recently took out a home equity loan for some much-needed home repairs. A few months later, a lender contacts her, suggesting she refinance her loan for a better interest rate. Sarah agrees, thinking it's a smart financial move. But soon after, the same lender persuades her to refinance again for additional home improvements, adding more fees to her loan. This cycle continues, with each refinance adding costs and reducing her home equity, all while Sarah gains little to no real financial benefit.

This scam, known as loan flipping, targets homeowners with existing home equity loans. It involves convincing the homeowner to refinance their loan multiple times. Each time a loan is refinanced, it usually comes with additional fees and costs. These repeated refinancings can quickly eat away at the homeowner's equity without offering substantial benefits.


To avoid falling into the loan flipping trap, be cautious of lenders who frequently suggest refinancing. Pay close attention to the fees associated with each refinance and assess whether the new terms genuinely offer a financial advantage. If the primary advantage seems to be more cash in hand rather than better loan terms, it might be a red flag. Always consider the long-term impact of refinancing on your financial health and home equity.

Foreclosure Relief

Alex has been struggling to keep up with his home equity loan payments after losing his job. Just as he's worrying about foreclosure, he gets an offer from a company promising to help him keep his home. They claim they can negotiate with the lender for better terms and prevent foreclosure, but they ask for a hefty fee upfront. Desperate to save his home, Alex pays the fee, only to find out later that the company did nothing, and he's now even closer to losing his home.

This is a classic example of a foreclosure relief scam. It preys on homeowners struggling with their home equity loan repayments and are at risk of losing their homes. Scammers offer false promises of assistance, like negotiating with lenders or stopping foreclosure, in exchange for upfront fees. Unfortunately, after paying, homeowners often find that these scammers provide no help, leaving them in a worse financial situation.


Be cautious of any company that asks for money upfront to help with foreclosure. Legitimate assistance programs usually do not require fees to be paid before providing help. Additionally, always check the credentials of any company offering foreclosure assistance and consult with a trusted financial advisor or attorney before taking action. Remember, if an offer sounds too good to be true, especially during a stressful financial time, it might be a scam.

Scams Involving Contractors

Lisa is planning to renovate her old kitchen. A contractor visits her home, offering to manage the project. He points out several additional "problems" that need urgent repairs, inflating the scope and cost of the renovation. Concerned about her home's condition, Lisa decides to take out a larger home equity loan to cover these extra expenses. Later, she realizes many of the suggested repairs were unnecessary, and she's now burdened with a bigger loan than she initially needed.

Homeowners looking to use a home equity loan for renovations or repairs can fall prey to unscrupulous contractors. These scammers often exaggerate or fabricate the need for extensive, costly home improvements. The aim is to persuade the homeowner to borrow more money, increasing their profit.


Be wary of contractors who insist on extensive, expensive repairs that don't seem necessary. Always get multiple opinions and quotes before making a decision. Research the contractor's background and reputation, and never rush into a home equity loan based on a single contractor's assessment. Remember, if a contractor's recommendations drastically increase your renovation budget, it's wise to seek a second opinion. Stay informed and cautious to protect both your home and your finances.

Asset-Based Lending

Gary is a retiree with a fully paid-off home, making him equity-rich. However, his retirement income is modest. Gary decides to take a home equity loan to fund some long-awaited travel. He approaches a lender who, without much scrutiny of his income, readily approves a large loan based on his home's value. Gary is thrilled at first, but he soon realizes the repayments are more than he can afford, putting him at risk of losing his home.

Asset-based lending scams focus on the value of your asset, in this case, your home, rather than your ability to repay the loan. Unlike equity stripping, where the scam aims to take over your home when you can't repay it, asset-based lending traps you in a loan that's unsustainable, given your actual income.


Be cautious of lenders who are more interested in your home's value than in your income or ability to repay the loan. Legitimate lenders always assess your repayment capability before approving an application. If a lender glosses over your income details or seems unconcerned about your financial situation, consider it a red flag. Remember, a loan should fit your financial situation, not just your home's value.

Excessive Fees

Rachel eagerly sought a home equity loan for repairs, drawn by a lender's promise of swift approval. However, she initially overlooked the detailed fees listed in her loan estimate form — a crucial document outlining rates and fees. She was taken aback by the closing disclosure form's revelation: fees nearly 20% of the loan value, plus hefty prepayment penalties. This late discovery unveiled a burdensome loan that significantly drained her equity.

This scenario highlights the excessive fees scam, where lenders obfuscate hefty charges in loan documents, particularly in the loan estimate and closing disclosure forms. Legitimate fees, typically ranging from 2% to 5% of the loan amount, cover necessary costs like processing ($50 to $500), appraisal ($300 to $600) and legal fees ($500 to $1,000), transparently. In contrast, excessive fee scams inflate these costs with unjustifiable charges, such as document preparation fees above $200 or courier fees significantly higher than actual costs. It traps homeowners in financially damaging loans, eroding their equity and financial stability.


Scrutinize your loan estimate and closing disclosure forms for fees that seem unusually high compared to industry standards. Question any charges that significantly exceed reasonable ranges for processing, appraisal and legal fees. Be especially wary of inflated document preparation, courier or loan origination fees. Recognizing these red flags can help you avoid falling into a trap where excessive fees erode your home's equity and compromise your financial stability.

Balloon Payment

Tom is a homeowner who's been struggling with his mortgage payments. When a lender offers to refinance his mortgage with significantly lower monthly payments, Tom breathes a sigh of relief. The deal seems perfect — his monthly burden is reduced, and he feels he can manage his finances better. However, five years down the line, Tom is hit with a shocking reality — a massive balloon payment is due with an amount he's completely unprepared for. This huge sum, which he didn't anticipate, puts him at risk of losing his home.

The balloon payment starts when you're behind on mortgage payments and a lender offers a refinancing option that seems too good to refuse. The catch is that the low monthly payments cover only the interest, not the principal amount. After a few years, you're suddenly faced with a balloon payment, a large sum covering the remaining principal. They can be financially devastating if you're not prepared with significant savings to cover the sum.


Be cautious of refinancing offers that significantly lower your monthly payments without clear explanations. Always ask if there's a balloon payment involved and understand the full terms of the loan. A legitimate lender will be transparent about the loan structure, including any large payments due in the future. If a deal focuses only on immediate relief without discussing long-term implications, take it as a red flag. Remember, understanding the complete repayment plan is essential in securing a loan that fits your financial capabilities.

Protecting Yourself from Scams

While the risk of encountering a scam exists, don't let this deter you from considering a home equity loan. By being proactive and informed, you can significantly reduce the risk of falling prey to fraud. Equipping yourself with knowledge and the right strategies can be your best defense against scams. Here's how you can protect yourself:

Be Familiar with Common Fraudulent Scenarios

Understanding the typical scams in home equity loan fraud, like those discussed earlier, prepares you to recognize and avoid them. Knowledge is power in safeguarding your finances.

Ask for Lender Recommendations from Trusted Sources

Getting referrals from friends, family or financial professionals can lead you to reliable and reputable home equity loan lenders. Personal experiences and professional endorsements add a layer of trust.

Research Lenders Thoroughly

Before settling on a lender, do your homework. Check their history, customer reviews and any regulatory complaints.

Read All Loan Documents Carefully Before Signing

Understanding every clause in your loan agreement is crucial. If there's something you don't understand, don't hesitate to ask questions. Never sign documents with terms that are unclear or seem unfair.

Consult with a Financial Advisor or Attorney

Professional advice is invaluable in navigating the complexities of home equity loans. Advisors or attorneys can spot red flags you might miss and provide guidance tailored to your financial situation.

Get Multiple Loan Offers to Compare Terms

Don’t settle for the first offer you receive. Shop around and compare different loan terms. Doing this ensures you get the best deal and exposes inconsistencies that could signal a scam.

Keep Personal Financial Information Secure

Refrain from sharing financial details, especially with unsolicited contacts. Protecting your personal information prevents identity theft, a common tool in financial scams.

While home equity loan fraud is a reality, being informed and cautious can significantly lower your risk. Understanding the tactics of fraudulent lenders, seeking trusted advice and thoroughly researching your options are critical steps in securing a safe and beneficial home equity loan. Remember, the more informed you are, the safer your finances will be.

What to Do If You Encounter a Home Equity Loan Scam

Coming across a potential home equity loan scam can be unsettling, even if you haven't fallen victim to it. Knowing the proper steps to take in these situations helps you handle the immediate threat and empowers you to prevent others from being scammed. Here are some steps to remember:

Step 1: Know Your Rights and Explore Options

Educate yourself about your legal rights as a borrower and explore potential remedies. Understanding your rights can empower you to take appropriate action if you've been targeted by a scam. It'll help you to navigate the situation more effectively, potentially leading to legal recourse or financial remediation. In the long term, being aware of your rights and options ensures that you're better prepared to protect yourself in future financial dealings.

Step 2: Report Suspected Scams to Authorities

If you suspect a scam, report it to local law enforcement and financial regulators. Immediate reporting can help authorities take action against the scammer, potentially saving others from falling victim. The reports help contribute to a safer financial environment in the long term.

Step 3: Seek Help if You’re a Victim

Contact consumer protection agencies or a legal aid organization for assistance. These organizations can offer guidance on how to recover from the scam, both financially and emotionally. They can also provide legal advice to help you navigate the aftermath.

Step 4: Consult Key Contacts

Reach out to consumer protection agencies, legal aid or financial advisors for advice. These experts can offer practical steps for your specific situation, safeguarding your short-term and long-term financial interests.

Step 5: Share Your Experience

Talk about your encounter on social platforms or community groups. Sharing your story raises awareness, helping others recognize and avoid similar scams.

Remember, the quicker you act, the better your chances of minimizing the impact of the scam. Stay alert, stay informed and don't hesitate to take action against home equity loan scams.

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If you think you've encountered a mortgage scam or suspect you have been defrauded, start by reaching out to the FBI at 202-324-3000 or https://tips.fbi.gov. You can also file a complaint with the CFPB or contact the FTC. — Timothy Manni, Mortgage and Real Estate Consultant

FAQ: Home Equity Scams and Fraud

When considering a home equity loan, it's best to have the right information. Our FAQ section sheds light on common concerns and questions, helping you stay informed and vigilant against potential home equity loan scams.

What are the most frequent tactics used in home equity loan scams?
How can I protect myself against scams when applying for a home equity loan?
How do I know if a home equity loan offer is legitimate?
What should I do if I suspect a home equity loan scam?
Are there warning signs of home equity loan fraud?
Is it safe to use online lenders for home equity loans?
How can I verify the credibility of a home equity loan lender?